When Tammany was organized in New York in 1789, it represented middle-class opposition to the power of the “aristocratic” Federalist Party. Incorporated in 1805 as a benevolent body, the Society of Tammany became identified with the Democratic Party by means of identical leadership within both organizations.
Mr. Smith was a Tammany Hall stalwart and, to give credit where it is due, elevating worker safety to the state agenda would have required the approval of the local Democratic leader, Timothy D. Sullivan, known as Big Tim, and Charles F. Murphy, the visionary boss of Tammany Hall, who valued the lives of their constituents as well as their votes.
City bosses established virtual dictatorships over their cities, using illegal means to do so. Bosses, however, did make some improvements in city life during the late 1800s and the early 1900s. As industrialization occurred and thousands of Americans moved to cities seeking employment, city governments had tremendous difficulty providing necessary services to the city's residents. City bosses commonly filled that void by having streets cleaned, by enforcing laws (at least the ones they chose to enforce), and by providing other services.
ere political bosses harmful to the democratic process, or did they provide a social welfare net and enable immigrants to assimilate into American society? This debate raged when urban political machines controlled American cities, pitting reformers, whom one party boss labeled “morning glories,” against the party machines that delivered votes to candidates and provided jobs to supporters. The debate has continued since the demise of most urban machines.
Factory Investigation Commission, Frances Perkins, Alfred E Smith, Robert F Wagner
Tammany Hall elected its first New York City mayor in 1855, and for the next seventy years, the city government would be dominated by Tammany politicians. One of its most infamous, William Marcy “Boss” Tweed (1823–1878) never became mayor, but was considered the most influential person in the city.
In 1910 she became secretary of the New York Consumers’ League where she investigated labor conditions and successfully lobbied the state legislature for a law to restrict the hours of women workers to fifty-four hours a week.
These twin cartoons are two of Thomas Nast's most famous anti-Tweed Ring satires, and the latter--"Who Stole the People's Money?"--is among the most reproduced, mimicked, and well known of all American political cartoons.
homas Nast was a German immigrant who began his career illustrating newspapers and magazines, but eventually began creating political cartoons. Rising through the social and economic ranks, Nast embodied the American dream. He was a staunch advocate for municipal reform, and Tweed’s corruption fundamentally insulted his sense of equity.