VIETNAM WAR, fought from 1957 until spring 1975, began as a struggle between the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) supported by the United States and a Communist-led insurgency assisted by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
As the war dragged on, more and more Americans grew weary of mounting casualties and escalating costs. The small antiwar movement grew into an unstoppable force, pressuring American leaders to reconsider its commitment.
During the racial unrest and antiwar protests of the 1960s and early ’70s, Mr. Hayden was one of the nation’s most visible radicals. He was a founder of Students for a Democratic Society, a defendant in the Chicago Seven trial after riots at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and a peace activist who married Jane Fonda, went to Hanoi and escorted American prisoners of war home from Vietnam.
As we grew, however, our comfort was penetrated by events too troubling to dismiss. First, the permeating and victimizing fact of human degradation, symbolized by the Southern struggle against racial bigotry, compelled most of us from silence to activism. Second, the enclosing fact of the Cold War, symbolized by the presence of the Bomb, brought awareness that we ourselves, and our friends, and millions of abstract "others" we knew more directly because of our common peril, might die at any time. We might deliberately ignore, or avoid, or fail to feel all other human problems, but not these two, for these were too immediate and crushing in their impact, too challenging in the demand that we as individuals take the responsibility for encounter and resolution.
The August 1968 Democratic National Convention held in Chicago attracted many antiwar protestors and violence erupted. Months later, on 29 March 1969, eight men were indicted in Federal court for conspiring and traveling over state lines to incite rioting at the convention. These eight men, the "Chicago Eight," were David Dellinger, a veteran pacifist and chairman of the New Mobe; founders of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Tom Hayden and Rennie Davis; Yippie organizers Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin; academics Lee Weiner and John Froines; and Black Panther leader Bobby Seale.
The 1968 Democratic National Convention took place in Chicago on 24-29 August. Ten thousand antiwar protesters gathered, and police and National Guard troops were mobilized to ensure order. In addition, U.S. military intelligence services and undercover Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) agents infiltrated the crowd, even though the CIA is prohibited by law from operating inside the United States.
Even as delegates began entering this encampment, an army of protesters from across the country flowed into the city, camping in parks and filling churches, coffee shops, homes and storefront offices. They were a hybrid group—radicals, hippies, yippies, moderates—representing myriad issues and a wide range of philosophies, but they were united behind an encompassing cause: ending the long war in Vietnam and challenging Democratic Party leaders and their delegates to break with the past, create change—yes, that was the term then on every protester's lips—and remake the battered U.S. political system.
The trial of political activists accused of inciting riots during the Democratic National Convention of 1968 attracted national attention and exposed the depths of political and cultural divisions at a crucial moment in the nation’s history. The trial of the “Chicago Seven” became a defining event in public debates about the Vietnam War, the student protest movement, and the fairness of the federal judicial process. The assassination of Martin Luther King in April provoked devastating urban riots in Chicago and other cities. The assassination of Robert Kennedy in June further shocked the nation and complicated the race for the Democratic nomination. The spring of 1968 had also brought the Tet offensive against American forces in Vietnam and unprecedented student protests on university campuses. By August, many Americans believed the nation was in the midst of a profound political and cultural crisis.
The August 1968 Democratic National Convention held in Chicago attracted many antiwar protestors and violence erupted. Months later, on 29 March 1969, eight men were indicted in Federal court for conspiring and traveling over state lines to incite rioting at the convention
In the mid-1960s, during the Vietnam War, as troop numbers and bombings escalated so did feminists' condemnation of the war, which they saw as connected to patriarchy, sexual violence, racism, capitalism, and imperialism. Feminist, civil rights, and other New Left activists charged that the vast sums spent on the war would be better spent on social problems at home, including gender inequality, poverty, and racism.
Women suffer this second class treatment from the moment they are born. They are expected to be, rather than achieve, to function biologically rather than learn. A brother, whatever his intellect, is more likely to get the family's encouragement and education money, while girls are often pressured to conceal ambition and intelligence.
In the 1960s, deep cultural changes were altering the role of women in American society. More females than ever were entering the paid workforce, and this increased the dissatisfaction among women regarding huge gender disparities in pay and advancement and sexual harassment at the workplace.
The article discusses the legacy of African American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., and perspectives on King's life and work from U.S. author and historian Taylor Branch, particularly following the March 1965 incident at the Edmund Pettis Bridge in Selma, Alabama. The article also discusses race relations in the U.S. following events in Ferguson, Missouri, in 2014. It also presents comments from Branch concerning social conditions in Atlanta, Georgia, during the mid-20th century
When about 600 people started a planned march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, on Sunday March 7, 1965, it was called a demonstration. When state troopers met the demonstrators at the edge of the city by the Edmund Pettus Bridge, that day became known as "Bloody Sunday." Why were the people marching?
On March 7, the march began. King was absent, having returned to Atlanta because of pressure from White House officials. He missed the sixty helmeted state troopers and local police with gas masks who lined up opposite the six hundred marchers at the foot of the Edmund Pettus Bridge.
The 1960s was a period of growth for the environmental movement. The movement began with a newfound interest in preservationist issues. In that decade, membership in former conservationist organizations like the Wilderness Society and the Sierra Club skyrocketed from 123,000 in 1960 to 819,000 in 1970. President Lyndon Johnson also took an interest in preservationist issues.
Geary, Daniel. "Environmental Movement." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 226-231. U.S. History in Context. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
Silent Spring and its author were immediately attacked by the scientific establishment and the powerful agrichemical industry. Mounting a quarter-million-dollar publicity campaign, the industry attacked her as an hysterical woman as well as a poor scientist and accused her of needlessly alarming the public. Nonetheless, Silent Spring caught the attention of President John F. Kennedy, who called for an investigation of the issues it raised.
in October 1966, Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton organized the group in an effort to confront the rampant police brutality in that city, and soon afterward expanded its aims to include issues of poverty, employment, education, housing, and legal rights. While the BPP's 'Ten-Point Program" demanded the right "to determine the destiny of our Black Community," and "an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our Black Community," the party from its inception addressed these issues on behalf of all oppressed groups, not just African Americans, and advocated multi-racial solidarity.
During the 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement prompted increasing political awareness and activity among several minority groups. Among these were the migrant farm workers, most of them Mexican, who traveled throughout California and the western states to take seasonal jobs in fields and orchards.
Founded in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in 1966, the Black Panthers vocally affirmed Black Power and black pride and took an uncompromising stance on civil liberties for black Americans. The ten points outlined in the party's Platform and Program itemize their demands for justice and for an equal share in the protection and benefits of American citizenship.
The 1960s are known for the many organized movements that worked to bring about social change. Student activists, women's rights activists, gay rights activists, and civil rights activists, among others, are a few examples of groups that organized to press for important changes they felt were needed to ensure that all Americans had access to equal rights.